Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Result of learning behavior test

This class has taught me a lot about myself as a learner and what works best for me when it comes to how I study. EXP 105 has given me the ability to know how I learn and what my strengths are in my learning process. It has shown me that not everyone learns the same way by just reading and responding. That everyone is learning behavior is as unique as one’s fingerprint. My learning behavior is Sequence – 27, Precision – 26, Technical Reasoning 26 Confluence -23, and I am ranked as a Dynamic Learner. My strengths are in my organization skills as well as my ability to be able to plan.In everything I do I lead by planning things out as well as being very organized with list and time schedules. These techniques work very well for me and the more I have learned about them the better I have become in strengthening my learning behavior. I have learned that my LCI not only tells me how I learn but also how I do my discussions and my assignments. I FIT all of my learning behaviors in to everything I do in studying, learning, writing, note taking, and even in tests. I follow a format every time and have become more aware of this the further along I have come in this class and in the assignments.It is almost as if I follow the same exact pattern every time I begin to read or write. I am continuously learning more and more about myself as an intentional learner and will continue to do so thru out my collage experience. In all my assignments, I always begin with making an outline of what I want to cover in my discussions. I make a list of all points that I want to cover and bring up in my papers. I also like to take extensive notes when I read each chapter so that I can always look back and refresh my memory on what I have read.It also makes for an excellent study guide. By learning how I learn it has made it easier to understand the best way for me to write my papers or study in general. As I just get started in my online education, this class has help ed me in how I approach each assignment. I started this journey because I am a single mother of two and want to better our lives. Going to school online gives me the ability to do my class work and studies around my children’s schedules. It enables me to be there to take care of my children, be there for their school and for them in general.It was very important to me that I wanted to go back to school and better myself and my family, but I did not want my children to be neglected or feel pushed aside, and also for me to be able to study and work at my pace. Ashford University has allowed me to do all of this. The faculty has been so wonderful and beyond helpful that I have not felt alone or lost during this new start in my life. I am grateful for this new chapter in my life and all the help from advisors and teachers that I have received and am looking forward to continuing my education with this university.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks in Intelligent Transportation Systems

Vehicular webs are going as a milepost of the coming coevals the Intelligent Transportation Systems ( ITSs ) , affecting a safer and more efficient transit by giving whole information on clip to drivers and several governments. By and large the moving vehicles are able to pass on with another vehicle through the vehicle to vehicle communicating or to the route side unit via vehicle to route side communicating. Particularly the Location of vehicle must be hint on its individuality on web [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] . Besides the traveling vehicle has its ain individuality depending on the other vehicle. The vehicles are ever anon. in the web. A big field of petition in web relies on association and information collection amongst take parting vehicles. Exclusive of individualities of participants, such applications are susceptible to the Sybil assault where a malevolent vehicle mask as legion individualities [ 3 ] , overwhelmingly act uponing the consequence. The effect of Sybil onslaught happening in vehicular web can be important. For case, in protection related contraption such as danger warning, smash turning away, and fliting aid, partial consequences caused by a Sybil onslaught can demo the manner to strict auto bad luck. Therefore, it is of great significance to feel Sybil onslaughts from the highly get downing of their happening. Detecting aggressor node in urban vehicular webs, however, is really demanding. Primary, vehicles are cryptic. There are no handcuffs of trust associating claimed individualities to reliable vehicles. Second, location privateness of vehicles is of great apprehensiveness. Locality information of vehicle can be really private. For case, it can be contingent that the rider of a vehicle may be under the conditions from cognizing the vehicle is parking following to a infirmary. It is inhibitive to do obligatory a conversation association among claimed individuality to genuine vehicles by formalizing the physical endurance of a vehicle at a proving place and clip. Third, conversations among vehicles are really bantam. Due to elevated mobility of vehicles, a running vehicle can hold merely more than a few seconds [ 4 ] to pass on with another periodically encountered vehicle. It is hard to establish certain dependability among pass oning vehicles in such a bantam clip. This makes it effortless for a malevolent vehicle to bring forth an aggressive individuality but really hard for others to legalise. Additionally, small treatment amongst vehicles calls for online Sybil assault exposure. The find proposal fails if a Sybil onslaught is identified after the onslaught has accomplished. To extinguish the bullying of Sybil onslaughts, it is undemanding to obviously adhere a dissimilar authorised individuality [ 5 ] , [ 6 ] , [ 8 ] to every vehicle so that all lending vehicle can match to itself merely one time during all communications. Using unambiguous individualities of vehicles has the likely to wholly avoid Sybil onslaughts but v iolates the enigma concern in urban vehicular webs. 1.1 Introduction of vehicular Network: The aim of ambient intelligence is to make an intelligent day-to-day infinite, which is instantly useable and integrated into our places, our offices, our roads, our autos, and everyplace. This new construct must be unseeable ; it must intermix in with our normal environment and must be present when we need it. One of the applications of this construct consists of supplying our autos and roads with capablenesss to do the route more secure ( information about the traffic, accidents, dangers, possible roundabout way, conditions, etc. ) and to do our clip on the route more gratifying ( Internet entree, web games, assisting two people follow each other on the route, chat, etc. ) . These applications are typical illustrations of what we call an Intelligent Transportation System ( ITS ) whose end is to better security, efficiency and enjoyment in route conveyance through the usage of new engineerings for information and communicating ( NTIC ) . Traditional traffic direction systems are bas ed on centralised substructures where cameras and detectors implemented along the route cod information on denseness and traffic province and transmit this information to a cardinal unit to treat it and do appropriate determinations. This type of system is really dearly-won in footings of deployment and is characterized by a long reaction clip for processing and information transportation in a context where information transmittal hold is critical and is highly of import in this type of system. In add-on, these devices placed on roads require periodic and expensive care. Consequently, for big scale deployment of this type of system, of import investing is required in the communicating and detector substructure. However, with the rapid development of wireless communicating engineerings, location and detectors, a new decentralized ( or semi-centralized ) architecture based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications ( V2V ) has created a really existent involvement these last few old ages fo r auto makers, R & A ; D community and telecom operators. This type of architecture relies on a distributed and independent system and is made up of the vehicles themselves without the support of a fixed substructure for informations routing. In this instance, we are speaking about a vehicular ad hoc web ( VANET ) , which is no more than a specific application of traditional nomadic ad hoc webs ( MANET ) . An illustration of an urban VANET web is illustrated in Following Figure. Fig 1.1. Example of VANET web An application sphere where those visions can go world in the close hereafter is wireless communicating in vehicular traffic webs in order to better traffic safety and to increase traffic efficiency, vehicle-to-X communicating ( V2X ) webs. The notations car-to-X communicating ( C 2X ) and vehicular ad- hoc webs ( VANE Ts ) are synonymously used. The â€Å"X† emphasizes that either entirely vehicles communicate ( vehicle-to-vehicle communicating ( V2V ) ) , or so do vehicles and substructure points ( vehicle-to-infrastructure communicating ( V2I ) ) . For both types of communicating similar engineerings may be used, and webs uniting both are expected. In this thesis we concentrate on direct V2V communicating. It is envisioned that by interchanging information straight between vehicles every vehicle should be able to observe vehicles in the surrounding and may cipher the current traffic state of affairs from collected information. Such co-operative autos warn their drivers if n ecessary, e.g. in instance of at hand dangers like possible hits with other vehicles or looking obstructions on the route, e.g. route works. The communicating hence has to carry through highest quality demands as precise information has to be transmitted with high dependability and short hold under inauspicious and extremely dynamic environmental conditions. A cardinal edifice block of V2V communicating is the periodic transmittal of position information by every single vehicle. These messages that are frequently called beacon messages contain information like current place, velocity, acceleration and way of driving. The messages serve as the information footing for the common consciousness of the vehicles. For vehicles in the close surrounding of a several sender, the response of beacon messages is of peculiar importance in order to obtain accurate consciousness of the stopping point environing. Beacon messages have specific and unusual communicating belongingss that have to be considered. First, beacon messages are transmitted by every equipt vehicle. Second, beacon messages that contain up-to-date information are transmitted in a periodic man- ner, i.e. several times per second. Third, the messages are transmitted in a broad- dramatis personae mode and do non hold one specific receiver. In effect, an effectual strategy to admit a succ essful message response is non easy applicable. Therefore, specific methods are necessary to look into this type of communicating that we call local broadcasts communicating. With regard to the mentioned belongingss it has to be identified how timely and dependable periodic beacon messages can be distributed in the local surrounding of each vehicle. A cardinal and precise cognition of the systems in usage, their behaviour and their public presentation is necessary to measure V2V communicating and to plan systems that work dependable under mundane conditions. Therefore, the end of this thesis is a comprehensive and precise public presentation rating of periodic local broadcast communicating in V2V communicating webs. Of peculiar involvement is the scalability of immense and heavy webs. It turns out that the concealed terminus job is peculiarly relevant as it causes interventions during the response of messages. We discuss the analysis of effects of mu- tual intervention on the public presentation of V2V webs and accordingly on their possible. Therefore, such webs are analyzed with a focal point on the possibilities and restrictions that the communicating m echanisms and the physical features provide for the particular type of informations traffic that is exchanged. Several undertakings worldwide have investigated the betterment of transit systems with regard to the positive consequence on traffic safety and traffic efficiency. In recent old ages, the specific function of V2X communicating came into focal point and broadened the research sphere to the interaction of vehicles and substructure. Be- bow, these spheres were frequently treated individually: while from infrastructure side adaptable traffic telematics applications were introduced ( e.g. variable message marks for velocity and figure of parking tonss, or adaptative traffic visible radiations for traffic flow optimisation ) , on the vehicle side, electronic systems were introduced to im- prove rider safety, the controllability of the vehicle in critical state of affairss, or pilotage systems. The possibility to interact via wireless communicating be- tween substructure and vehicles, every bit good as straight between vehicles, allows to develop wholly new application scenarios where coop eration of the different entities may be achieved. We now foremost present undertakings where such possible applications were discussed, before deducing the communicating challenges and so looking at the proficient systems that should supply the necessary communicating demands. A nomadic ad hoc web ( MANET ) is an independent system made up of nomadic Stationss interrelated by wireless associations devoid of the direction of a centralised substructure. Following gettable communications in the web, the nomadic Stationss ( or nodes ) can say besides the map of router to convey informations. In this chapter, we focus on the survey of the chief component in ITS systems which are inter vehicle communicating ( IVC ) and its correlative services. For route security services, the information on possible danger can be exchange in existent minute between vehicles to advise the drivers. Examples of services are non imperfect to route security applications but subsist for other types of map as good, peculiarly console applications ( portable Internet entree, set of autos, games, etc. ) offering interesting point of view for telecom operators looking for original service niches. Road security has been an of import anxiousness in the universe over the past few old ages w hile 1000000s of public dice every twelvemonth since of auto bad luck and many more are offended. gettable figures show that route dealing accidents in the Member States of the European Union per annum maintain about 39000 lives and escape more than 1.7 million people affronted, stand foring an predictable cost of 160 billion euros programmed public route systems and intelligent transit systems ( ITS ) were commence to rush up the development and employ of intelligent incorporated safety strategy that utilize information and communicating engineerings as an intelligent declaration, in order to escalate route safety and chair the figure of accidents in our prospect roads. In unsimilarity, as nomadic wireless attack became an of import portion of our life, and the omnipresent ‘anywhere, anytime’ connectivity strategy is further on magnetic attraction, Internet right to use from vehicles is in monolithic stipulate. The proliferation of cooperated system move in front for I TS and the focal point on information and transit engineerings services on one manus and the mounting figure of communicating infrastructure-enabled agencies of transit on the other manus has opened up fresh production theoretical accounts and cardinal market sections for legion stakeholders in the ITS-market. The Vehicular Communication Networks ( VCNs ) are a anchor of the envisage Intelligent Transportation Systems ( ITS ) . Through enabling vehicles to pass on with each other by manner of Inter-Vehicle Communication ( IVC ) every bit good as with wayside base Stationss via Roadside-to-Vehicle Communication ( RVC ) , vehicular system could provide to safer and extra competent roads. The juncture and territory of entry of VCNs are mounting quickly, with abundant vehicle manufacturer and cryptic establishment sharply prolonging investigate and enlargement in this field. The grouping with involved antenna systems, and the progressive dispersion of committed localisation systems ( GP S ) produce VCNs pertinent for the development of forceful protection applications, numbering knock into and concern systems, driver helper and bright traffic supervising system. On the other manus, inter-vehicular communicating ( IVC ) besides fuels the tremendous chances in online car break and enables the incorporation through Internet services and applications. In this Chapter, we nearby a comprehensive portraiture of the province of the art of this speedy traveling research country indicating to look into, undertakings and homogeny attempts that have been done. We discover the exceeding facial visual aspect and challenges that distinguish these extremely self-motivated webs every bit good as their necessities, peculiarly in footings of excellence of service, promote preface and sanctuary. We discuss diverse forwarding and routing attack concentrating on Location-based method including ‘anchor-based routing ‘ . We review miscellaneous ‘intelligent flooding†™ and information airing progress. We terminate by researching future investigate waies in this field. The first IVC surveies have emerged at the beginning of the 1980s in Japan ( for illustration: Association of Electronic Technology for Automobile Traffic and Driving ) with the addition of people or ware travelling, therefore exciting the geographic expedition of new solutions such as automatic drive, intelligent route planning, etc. Several authorities establishments throughout the universe have led an explorative stage from different world-wide undertakings, affecting a big figure of research units. These undertakings have led to the definition of several possible paradigms and solutions, based on different attacks. In this manner, traffic direction systems were installed in big Nipponese metropoliss and on most urban and intercity main roads. The Japanese have made big investings in the development of driver information systems. In the instance of a main road, the system electronically monitors the velocity and volume of traffic and gives drivers instant warnings on accidents and holds. Warnings and other information for drivers are displayed on different variable message marks. In the Nipponese AHS ( Automated Highway System ) undertaking, the end was to plan an automated main road system for independent drive: control of the vehicle is assumed by a computing machine on board. In the USA, there is the Intelligent Transportation Society of America ( ITS America ) , which is a group of makers, authorities bureaus, universities and other endeavors. This group focuses on research, publicity and development and deployment coordination of ITS applications throughout the USA. As in Japan, the American authorities besides implemented the NAHSC ( National Automated Highway System Consortium ) in 1995. In Europe, the PROMETHEUS ( PROgraM European Traffic with Highest Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety ) undertaking began in 1986 and included over 13 vehicle makers and several universities from 19 European states. In this context, several attacks and solutions refer ing ITSs have been developed, implemented and demonstrated. The consequences of this first measure were a elaborate analysis of the job and the development of a feasibleness survey to accomplish a better apprehension of the conditions and possible effects of using the engineering. Later, and with the technological promotion of communicating, computation and location equipments, other undertakings were carried out and have paved the manner for some IVC applications. Because of the importance of this field, new undertakings were initiated throughout the universe. In Europe, a certain figure of big scale undertakings have late emerged focussing on jobs related to IVC systems. Most of these undertakings were introduced in the context of research plans from the European Community ( 5thand 6ThursdayPCRD ) . However, a big bulk of these undertakings focus on the sole usage of bing substructure for implementing the IVC system, which can be highly expensive. Drive [ DRI 99 ] and GST [ GST 05 ] undertakings are first-class illustrations of these undert akings. DRiVE ( Dynamic Radio for IP Services in Vehicular Environments ) is meant to work on the convergence of different cellular engineerings and high throughput webs ( GSM, UMTS, DAB and DVB-T ) in order to implement the necessary foundation for the development of advanced IP services for vehicles. The GST ( Global Systems for Telematics ) [ GST 05 ] undertaking is besides intended for applications related to route safety. However, this undertaking focuses on the usage of the GSM web. It focuses on jobs in relation with procuring the web and service substructure, operation security and charge.

Matters of Life and Death Essay

In a new book, A Miracle and a Privilege, Dr Francis Moore, 81, of Harvard Medical School, discusses a lifetime of grappling with the issue of when to help a patient die. An excerpt: Doctors of our generation are not newcomer to this question. Going back to my internship days, I can remember many patients in pain, sometimes in coma or delirious, with late, hopeless cancer. For many of them, we wrote an order for heavy medication – morphine by the clock. This was not talked about openly and little was written about it. It was essential, not controversial The best way to bring the problem into focus is to describe two patients whom I cared for. The first, formerly a nurse, had sustained a fractured pelvis in an automobile accident. A few day later her lungs seemed to fill up, her urine stopped, her heart developed dangerous rhythm disturbances. So there she was: in coma, on dialysis, on a breathing machine, her heartbeat maintained with an electrical device. One day after rounds, my secretary said the husband and son of the patient wanted to see me. They told me their wife and mother was obviously going to die, she was a nurse and had told her family that she never wanted this kind of terrible death, being maintained by machines. I told them that while I respected their view, there was nothing intrinsically lethal about her situation. The kidney failure she had was just the kind for which the artificial kidney was most effective. While possibly a bit reassured, they were disappointed. Here was the head surgeon, seemingly determined to keep everybody alive, no matter what When patients start to get very sick, they often seem to fall apart all at once. The reverse is also true. Within a few days, the patient’s pacemaker could be removed, and she awoke from her coma. About six months later I was again in my office. The door opened and in walked a gloriously fit woman. After some cheery words of appreciation, the father and son asked to speak to me alone. As soon as the door closed, both men became quite tearful. All that came out was, â€Å"We want you to know how wrong we were† The second patient was an 85-year-old lady whose hair caught fire while she was smoking. She arrived with a deep burn, I knew it would surely be fatal. As a remarkable coincidence, there was a similar going on at the time in medical ethics, given by the wife of an official of our university. She asked me if I had any sort of ethical problem I could bring up for discussion. I described the  case and asked the students their opinion. After the discussion, I made a remark that was, in retrospect, a serious mistake. I said, â€Å"I’ll take the word back to the nurses about her, and we will talk about it some more before we decide†. The instructor and the students were shocked: â€Å"You mean this is a real patient?† The teacher of ethics was not accustomed to being challenged by reality. In any event, I went back and met with the nurses.  A day or two later, when she was making no progress and was suffering terribly, we began to back off treatment. When she complained of pain, we gave her plenty of morphine. A great plenty. Soon she died quietly and not in pain. As a reasonable physician, you had better move ahead and do what you would want done for you. And don’t discuss it with the world first. There is a lesson here for everybody.  

Monday, July 29, 2019

Staffing and defining an arts organization Assignment

Staffing and defining an arts organization - Assignment Example that â€Å"Our main reason for being is to create theatre productions that reflect the Canadian experience of the past, present and future† (What we do, n. d.). The mission statement of the organization rest upon the values, which is expressed as- â€Å"we are very active in play development as a means of supporting Canadian playwrights and building the repertoire of Canadian plays† (What we do, n. d.). The director is more responsible for the artistic activities of the organization rather than engaging in the day to day activities of the organization. He must have the vision that the plays staged by the organization must be unique and uphold the values of the organization enunciated by the founder. He must be a person of long term vision as the organization’s future id relied upon how competent he is in keeping the studio upfront of similar organizations. Similarly, he must have good managerial abilities and leadership qualities as he is the person responsible for coordinating the whole activities of the organization. He should have a good foresight and motivational qualities. He must motivate the entire people in the organization so that the objectives can be

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Famous Insanity Defense Cases Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Famous Insanity Defense Cases - Essay Example Insanity defense dates back from Ancient Greece and Rome, however, the first definition that is closer to the modern definition of insanity defense was given by an English Court, in 1843, the insane person being compared to a wild beast. However, an earlier definition explains insane defense as it follows: â€Å"If a madman or a natural fool, or a lunatic in the time of his lunacy do [kill a man], this is no felonious act for they cannot be said to have any understanding will.† In the USA, some of the leading historical moments directly connected to the insane defense are: the case Durham v. United States , (which established the Durham rule, also known as the â€Å"Product test†), the drafting of the American Law Institute Test (1953), the Hinckley case , which led to the adoption of Insanity Defense Reform Act in 1984 and the well known Andrea Yates case. The Andrea Yates case is one of the most mediated criminal cases involving insanity defense of the 21st century. Unfortunately, this is due to its dramatic implications. However, in spite of the horrifying implications, the defense attorneys managed to prove her mental instability and avoid her being convicted to prison for life time or maybe even death penalty. Andrea Yates is woman from Texas who one day killed all of her five children by drowning them, and after that, she called her husband and the police and let them know what she had done. The theories regarding this case are numerous and they continue to appear. Some are sure that the woman was suffering from a severe mental disorder, others disagree. The first trial found Andrea Yates guilty and gave her a life sentence. She was granted a second trial one year later and the jury found her not guilty by reason of insanity. The defense attorneys focused on proving Andrea Yates’ mental illness, which according to family, f riends and psychiatrists who had treated her in the past, was a FACT. In spite of the prosecution expert – Dr. Welner and other evidence, Andrea pleaded not guilty during the second trial. Dr. Park Dietz made a list of events that had affected Andrea Yates during her life and may have contributed to her mental disorder: â€Å"Giving up her career; Giving up her possessions; Changing her

Saturday, July 27, 2019

I would like you to distinguish between the four of the five major Essay

I would like you to distinguish between the four of the five major sentencing philosophies - Essay Example The philosophy has played a huge role in minimizing the level of crime throughout the world. This is due to strict laws on those caught taking part in crime. The philosophy has also experienced a lot of criticism whereby many people claim there is a lot of biasness in the ruling of sentences (Carlsmith 437). The main objective of the study is ensuring that there is gradual decline on the level of crime both locally and internationally. This is because through establishment of retribution philosophy, there is a decline in the rate of crime since most people are afraid of the harsh punishments that arrested criminals receive. The deterrence philosophy prevents criminals from indulging in crime again. This is normally after they have received severe punishment for a crime they committed in the past (Caersmith 438). Apart from deterring them from ever indulging in such crimes a gain, the philosophy also prevents other criminals from participating in crime since they would not wish to experience such punishments, which are normally severe. The philosophy was established after nations realized that some people normally go back to their past criminal activities after completing their sentence. This is when nations unanimously came up with the idea of imposing harsh punishments on those that will be caught breaking the law (Carlsmith 438). The deterrence philosophy has resulted to a decline in the level of past criminals returning to crime after completing their sentence. Unfortunately, some of the punishments imposed on the criminals are normally harsh to the extent that the person never recovers from the trauma even after leaving the correction center (Carlsmith 439). The main goal behind the deterrence philosophy is prevent the number of people taking part in criminal activities. This is because the philosophy principles are so strict and harsh to the extent that nobody wishes to be caught breaking the

Friday, July 26, 2019

Homicide in Puerto Rico Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Homicide in Puerto Rico - Essay Example are used to provide the reasons behind the increase of murders. Certain suggestions have been provided in this paper to control and try to minimize the number of incidents in this paradise. Puerto Rico is rated third in homicide cases, as it has registered nearly 800 cases in 2004 which is serious concern for the Puerto Rican government. This drastic increase in crime rate has damaged the reputation of Puerto Rica which is also known as Island's Paradise, affecting the tourism industry. It is for this reason, the issue needs to be taken seriously and probable and suitable measures need to be evolved to curtail and diminish such heinous activities from the society. The criminal is recognized by his tastes, occupation, and his interests towards alcohol, cards and sexual vices. The extent of criminality seems to vary inversely with the extent to which they are incorporated in closely integrated family and community groups. The most aggravated crime i.e. murder and homicide is turning out to be a hot debatable issue through the world. Be it Daniel Pearl's killing episode of United States or Satyanarayana of India, where both of them beheaded by the terrorist in Afghanistan. Homicides nowadays have become so prevalent that it seems like our daily activities. But the fact that gives us rush down the adrenaline is the amount of homicides committed throughout the period. The data released by the National Center for Victims of Crime (2008) reveals that 1 murder occurs every 32 minutes, 1 violent crime every 6 seconds, 56 women victimized every 19 seconds, 1 assault every 7 seconds and 1 sexual assault every 2 minutes. It has been observed that of all Puerto Rico has more crime than the US mainland. The crimes in Puerto Rico decreased drastically during 90's (from 32,300 in 1992 to 11,400 in 2001). There was an incredible rise in the cases reported pertaining to murders and homicides since 1999 (593 cases) while in the year 2005, the figure climbed to 766. However this was -4% less than the previous year 2004 where 797 cases were reported. There is an incredible rise in crime trend which provides a brief overview of the violence prevalent in Puerto Rico. (Violence in Puerto Rico) The data obtained from FBI and the Police of Puerto Rico shows that there is lower annual rate and faster improvement in aggravated assault, rape and robbery, higher homicide rate and higher lethality ratio than the mainland. According to Lefort (2000) Puerto Rico was one of the poorest regions of the United States during 20th century. (Ricardo Godoy, 2008) 1.1 Rate of Homicide - Puerto Rico Puerto Rico with the population of nearly 4 million during 2004, has witnesses 760 murders during 2003, thus making homicide the 11th leading cause of death which constitutes 2.7% of the total deaths occurred in the place. (Violence in Puerto Rico) During 1999-2003, of 3,613 total homicides in Puerto Rico, 2,303 (64%) occurred among persons aged

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Financial Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 7

Financial Management - Essay Example This paper discusses on whether the capital asset pricing model offers the right evidence on where investors can get value for their money. There are two types of risks that any investor is afraid of and should take into account when planning to capitalize in a given market. These include the systematic and unsystematic risks (Resource Center, 2013 n.p). The systematic risk is that which is related to the whole market and over which the investor has not control. This type of risk has a huge impact on the amount of returns that an investor should expect. The CAPM discloses this type of risk to the investor and makes him aware on what to expect (Resource Center, 2013 n.p). It includes the recession, the dynamic nature of interest rates and other natural phenomenon that the investor would have no control over. The unsystematic risks, on the other hand, are specific to investments and can be handled by the investor. He is aware of this kind of risk and has planned for it. According to the capital asset pricing model, beta is the measure of the risk that any stock investment is exposed to (Shapiro, 2006 p7). It shows the relationship between the market and the stock by showing how the dynamic change in the market affects the returns from the stock investment (Shapiro, 2006 p7). It is done, over a certain period of time, to determine how the up and down movement of the market affects the up and down movement of the stock prices. Therefore, beta provides the much needed answers to the risk-return relationship (Shapiro, 2006 p15). Equity is all that remains after all the expenses of an investor have been completely taken care of, and when all the expenses have been settled, and there is residual remaining of the assets (Perold, 2004 p12). The capital asset pricing model does a return-risk assessment of the financial securities of an investor and concludes that equities are the most risky assets, and their premium is very high (Perold, 2004 p13). The CAPM says

Marketing analysis for Construction Forensic Thesis

Marketing analysis for Construction Forensic - Thesis Example Hence, we see that the construction industry has taken over a number of services that were offered by A/E consultants. The contractors have taken over a large share of the service market of A/E consultants and thus, A/E firms need to expand the services offered to retain their market shares. They need to venture into service segments such as providing financial assistance to the clients, assistance with regulations, cost analysis of project life cycle, O&M functions, and renovation services. The situation has changed dramatically for marketing professionals and construction services providers and it is not as simple as it used to be. The shift in the project delivery system and the advances in communication technology requires the architects and the engineers to change themselves from their usual procedures of working. For example, in the past architects relied on their name and recognition whereas consulting engineers relied on 80/20 rule2 , and general contractors used to bid low i n competitive bidding situations3. The A/E consultants can retain their market shares by strengthening their market niche, marketing plans that increase customer retention, and restructuring of the organization to increase flexibility in the human resource and the services offered. If we take a look at the US construction industry, it is a pretty large profitable market and the barriers to entry in the market for foreign firms are low as there have been indications that a number of foreign firms have entered the heavily civil and public works markets in California, Massachusetts, and Florida. Statistically, Construction industry is a huge one. According to the US Census Bureau, the total value of business done in 2007 was $748,4994 (in millions of dollars). Similarly, in the state of Washington, there were a total of 21,701 establishments in 2007 and the dollar value of business done was $27, 916, 1235. Construction Litigation Industry The function that Construction Litigation serve s is dealing with legal disputes that result from construction projects. The disputes could result from disagreements in construction contracts and from injury claims or accidental deaths caused by ignorant behavior. In any case, construction litigation consultants are responsible for dealing with civil lawsuits involving private parties that are governed under separate rule and regulations from those of criminal prosecution6. Several new methods have evolved in the construction industry such as design/build, at-risk construction management, built-operate-transfer methods7. Difference of opinion exists on the claims and litigations under these methods. Proponents of these methods are of the view that these methods tend to bring down the hostility of the relationship between the concerned parties, hence resulting in an overall reduction in claims and litigations whereas advocates of litigation believe that despite the use of alternate methods; these methods just place the associated risks within the construction process. Consequently, there is no significant impact on the claims or litigation. On the contrary, they believe that

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

AMERICAN HISTORY SINCE 1900 Assignment One Essay

AMERICAN HISTORY SINCE 1900 Assignment One - Essay Example He never looks up towards the heavenly things that are placed before him. He is offered a crown of jewels and a place in Paradise, but he will not stop for a moment to look up from his decidedly earthly labors to consider the benefit of the riches offered to him. In the novel, Bunyan used the character to symbolize those that are trapped in the most mundane and unpleasant aspects of earthly existence. He used the Man with the Muck Rake as a type and a warning to those who become too absorbed in the worldly to contemplate the heavenly. President Roosevelt’s remarks indicate that he felt the muckrakers of his time had their place in the world and that they served a useful purpose in society. He indicated that he believed that all evil should be exposed at all times. He mentioned that he supported the dogged pursuit of evil men by the just that would shed light on their evil deeds. So in some ways, it appears as though the muckrakers had the tacit approval of the president. But t he very name casts doubt on the amount that President Roosevelt really believed the muckrakers could help. The name, based on its origins, indicates a person or people that are very good at one thing and one thing only. They are dedicated to seeing only the basest of worldly pursuits. The name also seems to indicate that he felt the muckrakers were individuals of limited vision. They were, in essence, so busy raking muck that they never could bring themselves to look about at all of the good that was happening around them. They were more interested in seeing abuse and scandal at every turn than they were in reporting or commenting on things as they really were. This attitude towards the muckrakers seems to indicate that President Roosevelt did not believe that all of the reforms the muckrakers supported needed to result in legislation on in strict regulations on industry. In the case of the meat packing industry, he seems to be holding reform as a threat over the head of the industr y leaders. In essence, he is saying that if you don’t clean yourselves up you will destroy your own business and exports of your own products. Regulate your own affairs or they will be regulated for you. History shows that the industry did not regulate itself, resulting in the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (Coles, 510). Part of the reason the President was so supportive of this piece of legislation is it was greatly demanded by the public. Work Cited Bunyan, John, and James Henderson Thomas. Pilgrims's Progress in Modern English. Chicago: Moody, 1964. Print. 7 Coles, Jessie V. The Consumer-buyer and the Market. New York: Arno, 1978. Print. 510 The events leading to World War I were largely the result of a system of reciprocal treaties that bound one country to enter a conflict if their allies were threatened. Like dominoes falling, on country after another entered the war after the assignation of the heir of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia. Germany was duty bound to support the Empire because of a mutual assistance treaty. But on the other hand, Russia, France, Great Britain and eventually Italy entered as allies against the Germans and Austrians. If everyone was to honor their obligations to the others, then everyone had to fight. The United States was committed to remaining neutral during the conflict. This was a position that was very popular in the United States and actually helped

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Capital asset pricing model Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Capital asset pricing model - Essay Example Capital Asset Pricing Model is a tool extensively used to value assets in the financial sector. It has been extensively used in calculating the required return of investment products. The capital asset pricing model was introduced in the 1960s by William Sharpe; Required Return: Risk free rate + ? (Average Market Return –Risk free rate) Where ? is the beta value of the financial asset The basic assumptions of this model pose as disadvantageous for this model to be considered as a perfect representative of required return calculation. One of its basic assumptions is that investors are holding diversified portfolios that are emulating the average market return; implying that the unsystematic risk is eliminated from the risk versus return calculation of the investor. On the whole, investors do try and make diversified portfolios in such a way that it portfolio return complements or exceeds the market return. Therefore, this assumption is not a big concern and is fairly reasonable (Eugene, 2010). Another assumption is that it can only account for single period transition horizon and usually a single year is used for comparison between two securities. This is another reasonable assumption as investors usually quote returns on an annual basis even if they hold a security for a longer period (Eugene, 2010). The assumption that the average investor can borrow at risk free rate is misleading.

Monday, July 22, 2019

American Express Essay Example for Free

American Express Essay Bonnie Wittenburg, the plaintiff in this case filed an age discrimination lawsuit against American Express Financial Advisors, Inc. ’s (AEFA). AEFA filed a motion for summary judgment, the district court granted and the United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit affirmed. Wittenburg started working at AEFA Equity Investment Department (EID) in November 1998 at the age of 46 (Walsh, 2011). According to the portfolio managers, Wittenburg provided outstanding service and displayed excellent investment skills and in 2000, she was name Analyst of the Year (Walsh, 2011). In 2001, AEFA hired a new Chief Investment Officer (CIO) and 2002 the CIO initiated a redesign of EID. The project would take approximately two years; add an additional three portfolio managers, a new satellite office and the merger or movement of certain funds to AEFA’s satellite office (Walsh, 2011). During a discussion regarding new hires, the CIO stated he was not averse to hiring younger managers or analysts to grow with the company (Walsh, 2011). The new design plan would include a reduction in force (RIF) which according to the CIO was necessary. The first RIF terminated Al Henderson, age 62. Henderson made a comment that Dan Rivera told him that AEFA fired him because the company wanted to retain the younger employees (Walsh, 2011). The second RIF eliminated three analyst positions but primarily focused on portfolio managers. During the second RIF, a team of managers reviewed about 25 people in the department giving each a rating of keep, maybe keep, maybe, maybe drop or drop (Walsh, 2011). They used the ratings to educate leaders about the individuals in the department and in late 2002 held a meeting to discuss employee ratings. Wittenburg received a low rating because of poor performance and negative input provided by portfolio managers but continued in her current position during the second RIF. Wittenburg along with two other analysts were terminated when the third RIF occurred; Wittenburg was 51 and the other two were 41 and 36. Wittenburg applied for a portfolio manager, she did not get the position and sued AEFA claiming Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (Walsh, 2011). Wittenburg’s defense would rely on statements from co-workers such as â€Å"those that were younger† â€Å"not averse to hiring younger portfolio managers† and notes that indicated the analyst department would maybe add a junior person. In making a decision, the court will consider if the statements were made by decision makers or by someone who may influence the decision to terminate the plaintiff, the gap between statements and the date of termination, and if the statement itself was discriminatory or merely an opinion. The CIO’s comment regarding the company’s willingness to hire younger workers was a general comment. The statement was not discriminatory nor did it establish that age was the basis for Wittenburg’s termination over a year ago. The reference to adding a junior person did not show discriminatory intent and Wittenburg did not prove the employee equated junior person to a younger person or how such a notation related to her termination. Wittenburg admitted that Rivera was not a decision maker in the 2003 RIF and his statement made to Henderson did not relate to her termination. The court decided that these comments did not establish a pretext based on AEFA’s nondiscriminatory purpose given for her termination. A total of 31 analyst were affected by the 2002 and 2003 RIF, 17 of the analyst were 40 years old or older and of the 17, six were terminated, four resigned and seven retained their jobs (Walsh, 2011). In addition, there were four terminated, two resigned, two transferred and six retained their positions of the 14 analysts who were not in the protected class (Walsh, 2011). There were two members, ages 41 and 46, of the protected class who ranked first and second during the 2002 analyst ratings and the two analyst terminated in 2003 were both younger than Wittenburg, one was 41 and the other 36 (Walsh, 2011). Another analyst in the protected class whose age was the same as Wittenburg survived the 2003 RIF. Wittenburg’s accusation that scores were manipulated to retain younger employees during the 2002 RIF by ranking them in the â€Å"keep† category even though their scores were low was actually a moot point as she survived the 2002 RIF even though her score was low putting her in the maybe keep category. AEFA stated they needed only one Technology Sector analyst and then redistributed the workload amongst other employees, Wittenburg argues that pretext was shown however, as stated by the court, â€Å"employers often distribute a discharged employee’s duties to other employees performing related work for legitimate reasons† (Walsh, 2011). As far as the two vacancies, those were among the 10 analysts who had survived the RIF, they were not new positions (Walsh, 2011). The decision to downsize and redesign the Equity Investment Department was for the betterment of the company. Wittenburg’s argument that AEFA only relied on her 2002 performance review in making their decision to terminate does not help her case. The court noted there is nothing discriminatory in an employer choosing to rely on recent performance data in deciding which employees to RIF (Walsh, 2011). American Express had not been doing very well and the CIO explained analyst’s performance evaluations on an annual basis are important because consumers look at one-year performance and make decisions (Walsh, 2011).

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Strengths Based Model and Social Role Valorization (SRV)

Strengths Based Model and Social Role Valorization (SRV) In your own words, explain the strengths and weaknesses of each model Strength Based Model (SBM) The Strengths This model strongly focuses on the identification of people’s abilities, interests and capabilities and on their strengths and potential. This is a recovery model used in mental health rehabilitation. In New Zealand, there are a number of standardized assessments that have been developed. Since 1998, all mental health services in New Zealand have been required by government policy to use the recovery approach. It is an empowering approach as the focus is on the strengths and abilities of the person rather that deficits and problems of the person and their family. The policy has concerned the way to use of stigmatizing, labeling or blaming language. The Strength Based Model creates hope by focusing on what has worked well for them in the past. The strength base model indentifies the positive things for the person and their environment. The strength based model realized communities are seen as resources not barriers. SBM understand the needs of mental people lead to can support them in their journey. The Weaknesses Following the Ministry of Youth Deveopment, 2009 SBM has unstructured youth activities. For example: SBM does not have aim or focus for youth clubs and are associated with poor immediate and long-term outcomes for the young people involved. Social role valorization (SRV) The Strengths In 1983, SRV is formulated by Wolf Wolfensberger. SRV gives a concept of transacting human relationships and human service. The major purpose of SRV is creates and supports socially valued for people in society. Moreover, SRV is intended to be used to analyze the process and effects of societal devaluation. SRV gives people know about the right of individuals valued equally and they have opportunity to contribute meaningful for their community. SRV mentions that if people have valued roles by society than they are more likely to access the good life as in friendships, the family, education, opportunity for work†¦ SRV has 2 broads strategies for enhancing the perceived value of people. The firstly, focusing on enhancing social image. The secondly, focusing on the person’s ability to fulfill lives that are socially valued. SRV can influence assessment, planning and coordination by giving a clear idea of services needed to fulfill socially valued roles. Service is provided within the service framework so often people with disability live, work and socialize with the same people and staff. The Weaknesses SRV has existed several years. It needs time to give more complementary. SRV does not improve consciousness of guarantee concern about devalued people in society. Even though SRV affects participants, it cannot control the character of participants. SRV has several societal impacts, which confined to narrow human service fields. The people in SRV are providing the re-valorization efforts. For example, support workers are paid for their job lead to SRV is not helping for disabled person out of interpersonal motivation for example: attraction, emotional attachment or friendship, and people are well aware of this. Hence, SRV is non-genuine and unstable. Comparison includes perspectives of disabled or older people (or a specific group of people) are considered. (Disabled People) The Strength Based Model (SBM) Assessment: The assessment is necessary for disabled people and mental problem because it will collect the client’s information and the staff can understand the client’s condition. The assessment will assess about the strength, aim and preferences of client. The SBM will identify skills, resources and capacity rather than deficits. SBM will setup the goals, which are realistic and achievable. Coordination Improving the relationship between the client and the professional The service system has capacity to go to the client. The service and support not only are addressed current clinical issues but also include social, housing, employment and spiritual for intellectual disability. Planning Planning focus on the steps how to achieve the goals of client. Moreover, planning also wants to improve the commitment between staff and support workers. Each client has their own planning to recovery. The Social Role Valorization Needs assessment and service coordination This is a service model where services are provided for people who meet either MOH and DHB eligibility. The MOH contracts NASC to access people with neurological conditions that result in permanent disabilities, developmental disabilities in children and young people include physical intellectual or sensory. NASC services are also delivered for people aged over 65 who have an age related illness. The services are provide as community support services, resident care, respite care, day care, behavior support, rehabilitation services and equipment. The assessment will identify current abilities, resources, goals and needs and establish what is the most important need for person. A comprehensive package of services may be required to meet individual needs. These may be from different funded sources, community support services and residential support. Service coordination is a process that enables an individual to meet their goals. Planning Following the assessment, planning includes identifying activities to achieve the person’s goal, meet needs and promote problem solving. Family needs to involve the process of disabled people. In addition, any friend or other relatives of the client can also help for the person with disability. The needs of client need to identify in care plan for all staff know when they give care. A summary of the expected outcomes for disabled or older people (or a specific group people) The Strength Based Model (SBM) There are several expected outcomes brought from the Strength Based Model. SBM creates special feeling and make strong sense of hope and optimism. SBM can find out weaknesses and vulnerabilities and can build on strengths. The purpose of SBM is creates helping process on strengths, interest and knowledge. SBM creates good relationship as collaborative and mutual between organization, client and their family. SBM emphasizes that individuals has duty own their recovery and SBM provides caring community. The social role valorization The main goal and purpose of SRV is wants to create and support valued roles for people. If people can understand socially valued roles lead to they can receive from their society good things. For example: community support, opportunity for a better life. Conformation that there is sufficient detail in the model to cover assessment, planning and coordination Comparison accords with recommended texts Wayne Hammond, Ph.D. 2010. Principles of Strength-Based Practice. Resiliency Initiatives. John McCormack, October 2007. Recovery and Strengths Based Practice. Glasgow Association for Mental Health. Rangan Aarti, Sekar K. 2006. Strengths Perspective in Mental Health. Evidence Based Case Study Joe Osburn, 1998. An Overview of Social Role Valorization Theory. Jane Sherwin, 2007. Social Role Valorization Theory as a Resource to ‘Person Centred Planning’. Laurie Davidson, February 2005. Recovery, self management and the expert patient-changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective

Marketing orientation and its importance in planning

Marketing orientation and its importance in planning Harris (2002, p. 247) Defines Marketing Orientation as The extent to which an organisation is perceived to act in a coordinated, customer and competitor-oriented fashion. Narver and Slaters (1990) also confirm there are three dimensions of Marketing Orientation, customer orientation, competitor orientation, and interfunctional coordination. With marketing orientation, a business revolves its strategic decisions around the wants and needs of the target market, including potential customers. A company that is marketing-orientated has the commitment to valuing customers and the customers needs. In fact, it can even contribute to the transformation of a companys business culture. This marketing concept involves three essential steps in being customer-focused. First, the wants and needs of the customers are researched and identified. Then, the research outputs are studied by the marketers and new products are created based on the consumer needs. Finally, customer satisfaction is aimed after public awareness and introduction of the product is made. A marketing-orientated business is characterised by various attributes. The company makes good and extensive use of marketing research, develops new and broad products, highlights product value and benefits, uses product innovation methods, and designs supplementary services or customer benefits such as delivery, installation, warranty, and credit availability. All these are geared toward customer advantage. Marketing orientation has three common alternatives which can be adopted by a company and these are sales orientation, product orientation, and production orientation. Looking at Renaults orientation, the conclusion that we have made is that Renault is a market orientated organisation. The reason for this conclusion is Renault is very focused on the needs and wants for the consumer. They have different types of cars focusing on different markets for their customer base. For example, Clio which is marketed at young adults who may have a low budget for purchasing the car. On the other side of the spectrum where the Laguna or Megane could be classed as a high specification family car. Also Renault has many of these cars in a range of sports models. Due to the nature of the business which Renault is involved in they have had to diverse the range of car models which they sell due to its competitors. For example Ford and Vauxhall. Another good example is Renault are in the process of developing hybrid cars and electric cars within its car range. According to Renault (2011) the first electric car will be sold in Israel in 2011 and then in other countries. The reason for this has come from customer demand, consumers are more aware of rises in fuel prices and carbon emissions. This would be a classic example how Renault is a market orientated company. In terms of RD Renault listen to their consumers as different customers have different types of criteria when purchasing a car. Mack (1996) states That to reinforce customer loyalty they involve existing customer in the design of its cars. According to Renault (2011) Renault- Nissan Alliance spend 4 billion Euros on the investment on electric parts. Many Eastern European countries would have a different specification of a car compared to someone in the UK. For example countries such as Bulgaria and Romania need cars that cater for larger families. Also some countries may not require a car which has a soft top due to climate conditions being different in comparison to a country where the weather is hot. Countries where the weather is constantly warm may require cars to have air conditioning. The Renault car called Dacia Logan has created in 2004, this particular type of car was designed for people in developing countries of the world. The car was first sold in Romania at a very cheap price of 5000 Euros and then moved into South America and India after proving a success when the car was first launched. Demographics would play a major role in the RD aspect of the business so Renault would know where and how to market their final end product. Boddy (2008) defines PEST analysis as A technique for indentifying and listing the political, economic, social, technological, environment and legal factors. Political Factors: The political factors in any country are largely responsible to alter a business environment as company may decide to change its business strategy based on the political scenario of the region it is based in. The government of any country regulates power supply, telecom and postal services and finance. The following are the political factors that affect Renault within the UK. Current taxation policy: According to the Trade and Investment minister Digby Jones the UK is becoming least attractive to work and invest due to the taxation policy, which was under pressure from opposition to tax rich foreign investors doing business in the UK. Thus the labour party proposed a cut on taxing investors who are non-UK domiciled. Also a worth mention is VAT which means value added tax. It is charged on most goods and services that are VAT registered. The recent recession has affected a lot of businesses most importantly the car manufacturing in the UK, it can be seen as going through a bad phase for the automobile industry. Thus UK motor agency served a budget to the current Government in the UK and urged it to create a right mix of policies to sustain growth in the segment. Renault decided to follow the following measures to counter any future threats in regards to financial aspect of the same by the following measures: Continue to put pressure on banks to give more loans Support automotive council Freeze fuel duty Following the Kyoto protocol, more political pressure has been imposed to the polluting industries. Regarding the car market, Governments across the world have established some environmental penalties and bonuses to manufacturers and consumers. For customers, they need to pay a tax to the government according to the level of CO2 emissions. This can have a massive influence for buyers, especially with sports car and ones with large engines which are regarded as the most polluting. Economic factors: Osbourn (2011) mentions Chancellor of Exchequer made a budget statement which is meant to reform the nations economy and this time the budget is neutral and also becomes the best place in Europe to invest, which is a good sign for car manufacturers as certain taxes applicable have been cut and import duty has been significantly reduced, which is a sign of relief for car manufacturers. Godlevskaja et al (2011) states: Many OEMs are expanding their model lines to entice new customers and increase overall customer base range. Often at their competitors expense. At the same time growth increase is limited within the auto mobility industry as a whole. in the EU new car demand fell 7.8 per cent to 14.7 million units in 2008 that reflects consumer concerns about the economy the buying power from consumers this could have been down toward the recession, despite this Renault would continuously market themselves to its potential consumers. Having customer awareness makes people want to purchase their vehicles with newer models being introduced. Sociological Factors: These factors constitute various social factors such as cultural aspects, demographics, lifestyles and attitudes. For e.g. Whatever works in one country may not be successful in other, Renault may sell racing cars in France but for a market like India it needs to launch small cars as in this country small cars are much in demand due to the infrastructure of the company and population size. Demographics: Renault is the third largest car manufacturer in the world with its presence across Europe, Asia and even Africa thus it needs to proactive rather than reactive in development in these countries. Its policy of developing strategic alliances with local manufacturers helps it to get an edge in the global scenario as locals know their home market better, they use a tried and tested marketing strategy of targeting the right market segment to see if it works sells. Such alliances apart from fostering industrial harmony also helps in sharing of technological aspects of each firm, and helps develop new products such as the concept of electrical cars to save fuel and protect the environment. Though Renault is a French company it has alliances across the Globe that helps it foster multicultural aspects. In which the sentiments of local population are not hurt as they continue using the same product such as in case of Romania and Korea. Where in Renault acquired Dacia and Samsung motors respectively. Such alliances also help it to launch existing vehicles from one region to the other, also known as market development from Ansoffs matrix. Alà ¡ez-Aller et al (2010) states knowing your customers needs and wants are vital to success to entry strategy within new regions. In depth analysis of macro and micro environment is key when consumers are looking to purchase vehicles. Technological Factors: Any company from any sector catering to any segment needs to change at some point, in order to grow and survive the growing competition from consumers and competitors. Godlevskaja et al (2011) states: Firms must constantly adjust their service portfolios because it is important for companies to have a dynamic service portfolio that is adapted to various customer needs. Consequently companies that fail to do so lose in the long term as the outside world is very competitive and brutal to securing a position in the market. Companies worldwide spend millions of money just to make sure that they do not lag behind if they lack the technical expertises. Renault (2011) quotes directly from its website: Renault is committed to the development and implementation of new technologies into every aspect of our vehicles. Renaults engineers cover every angle roadholding, safety, comfort, soundproofing, etc. in their relentless quest to make motoring a pleasurable experience. Porters five forces analysis and criticism In order to settle a strategy, a company must analyse its industry. However the analysis of its competitor is not enough to understand all the aspects of the business. The types of businesses are various and numerous. But in almost all the industries, Michael E. Porter has identified a common structure composed by five global forces. These are to take into consideration in order to implement a successful strategy. 1. The Analysis For our topic we will consider these five forces within the car industry adapted to the Renault Company. Rivalry among existing competitors Strong competition Very strong competitive rivalry in the cars sector, especially with the brands focusing on a particular market segment. E.g. Audi are becoming leaders on high standard quality cars, while TATA is undertaking the low cost cars segment The Asian manufacturers have a very strong growth thanks to their low cost cars and their quality car is very reliable. E.g. KIA and their 7 years warranty. The structure of the automotive industry is becoming more and more powerful because of all the merges and the joint ventures, so the competition is strong and aggressive. The threat of new entrants Low threat Few new brands entering on the market for these important reasons: The investment that has to be made is extremely important. Especially in the manufacture part of the activity, where the investment must be important if the brand wants to get a competitive advantage The experiment and the know-how are essential elements to have its place on its market, in particular on management of the costs and the competitiveness. The competitors already present are already well known brands. All these companies trend to be restructured into fewer big groups. These implicate that they are more powerful and do not let possibilities for any small new company to enter in the market The threat of substitute Mild/ Relative Threat Even if there are the other ways of transportation, the car remains indispensable nowadays. It is true that sometimes changing the transportation way can have some advantages as the cost (with the low cost airline carrier), the ethic of environment (with ecological way of transports such as trains or the buses) or time in important factor within lsrger cities (with the underground), none of the transport way offer a good mix of utility, convenience, independence, and value afforded by automobiles. Nowadays, the automotive companies have a wide range of product, which can satisfy every demand, in adapting their cars in satisfying every new need, that increases the loyalty of the consumers to use cars. Bargaining power of the suppliers: Dependence Suppliers/Customer The purpose is being to establish a profitable, reliable relation for both parts. But the parts suppliers are sometimes small manufactures so Renault has more pressure to put on its supplier in terms of price However the image of Renault, as a reliable car company also depends on the quality of the car parts Suppliers are also important to Renault in terms of costs, according to Renault (2011): Suppliers account for 80% of total vehicle production costs. It is therefore essential for Renault to gain their commitment and to make them part of its approach to sustainable development Bargaining power of the buyers Strong power of negotiation The consumers are the target of communication campaigns and marketing actions because it is more and more tempted to try other brands The final product are standardised, customers can put the pressure on the different vendors insisting on the fact that an equivalent car can be find from another company for approximately the same price The negotiation can be in the price, but also on obtaining more options or services with same price. This affects the costs to organisations 2. Criticism of the Porters analysis The three new forces The Porter analysis remains one of the most influential marketing and strategy tool. However this analysis has been written by Porter during the 1980s, and the economic world has considerably changed during the last decades. Especially due to the Internet and all the e-business that make evolved most of the industries. Larry Downes, co-author of Unleashing the Killer App: Digital Strategies for Market Dominance relates in the article Beyond Porter that the Porters five forces analysis is no longer a complete tool to opt for a viable strategy. He describes new strategic frameworks composed by three new factors (forces), which permit to analysis the business area more relevantly: The digitalisation Due to increase power of information technology, new business models will be born from the market. This allowed the global awareness of the consumers on the global market. The competitors will now not only be part of the same industry. Now the tour operator Thomas Cook can be a competitor of Renault. These two companies will push their clients to use their money to buy their product when there are the same prices According to Recklies (2008) The old economy used IT as a tool for implementing change. Today technology had become the most important driver for change. Therefore mindsets have changed for organisations and how they operate; the final end product will require an element of technological advances for it to successful in modern society due to social factors. The Globalisation The globalisation of the market is nowadays something that a company cannot afford to ignore. The effects of the globalisation on businesses are betterment in the areas of distribution logistics and communication. The Global companies have to adapt their strategies in function of the global network. These strategies remain more complex than what Porter describe. Its not a question of price or quality for the customers, but trying to reach a type of loyal relationship with a network of partners and consumers. The deregulation One of the big changes in the business from the Porters model is the taking into consideration of the intervention of the governments in the business and in the industries. Because of the action of the states (new laws, new quality requirements, new importation/exportation quotas) the industries and the organisations have to adapt their strategies, finding new alternatives to their business models. These factors became important but they rarely appear into the Porter analysis. So an important Company like Renault cannot focus on this tool to create a solid and successful strategy. The purpose of the five forces model is to define the attractiveness of an industry in relation with theses 5 forces. But according to Dagmar Recklies: In economics, the constellation of factors determines issues like profit maximisation or supernormal profits. So we can conclude that the Porters five forces analysis is a strategy tool that can be used only knowing its limitations and among others tools to be the base of a correct strategy. Place Jobber (2006) defines price as The agreed value placed on the exchange by a buyer and seller. Price is one of the fixed key factors in the marketing mix and should be blended together with all element of the marketing mix, to create customer value. It can be argued then that price interlinks with the other elements of the marketing mix and must be met by supply and demand to achieve its best. Price in the marketing mix is very important to a business as it can determine if a company is successful or not when selling the product, it can be perceived that price can reflect quality when selling to consumers. The price can affect the following areas so its pivotal to have the right pricing strategy to market the right product. Pricing Goals Marketing Mix Price Price can include the cost of production to an organisation and the strategy they use to market the product at a competitive price so consumers decide to use you, rather than your competitors. The price of a product can be sold at a cut-price to boost volume of sales. This can be a strategy used by organisations to gain market share which can have its positives and negatives. Walker (2006) states Having low prices may be perceived by consumers as being low quality. Organisation may market themselves so they may be seen as obtain profits on a short term basis. This is where promotion can be interlinked to a pricing strategy. Organisations spend vast amounts on RD before setting prices on products. It can be argued that firms must price the product in a way which reflects the appropriate position of the product within the market. The balance for organisations is to maximise profits, but to have a consistent amount of sales. Marketers use this strategy as they maybe price orientated within the marketing mix. This is where product development would occur and knowing your target market well. Renault uses price within the marketing mix very well. Throughout its range of cars they have luxury cars including the Laguna all the way down to the Clio which is targeted on price with low maintenance costs. In terms of price to the Renault Clio it can be seen as being priced similar to its major competitors. Considering the Vauxhall Corsa, Ford Fiesta and also Peugeot 206. The pricing strategy of the Renault Clio new ranges from around  £9,000 to  £19,000 plus. There are many factors that can influence the prices of just one particular type of car. For example engine size, motor sport version etc The Clio range has the sport 2000, Dymanique, Gordini and also Bizu. This shows that the product has been diversified to achieve maximum price when selling the product to consumers. Clio Series Price Sport 2000  £16,000 Dymanique  £11,000 Gordini  £19,000 Bizu  £9,000 Walker (1996) shows that all other competitors i.e. Corsa and Fiesta are based around the same pricing strategy. This is because the car industry is large and production costs are not so important and creating the largest profit is not as necessary as it would be for a smaller organisation. The reason for Clio having the same pricing strategy as its competitors is because it is the only model in Renault range to predominately focus on lower cost with low quality from launch. Therefore it needs to be competitive with its rivals. The Clio model has done this very well as new models for the Clio are designed every few years. The Clio has been on the market for over 15 years proving its successfulness to its consumers who are aware of other markets available to them. The following is a perceptual map of small commercial cars sold and its comparison with the Renault Clio. It can be seen that the Clio and Corsa can be placed in the same category as each other, as both focus on price mainly. Other small cars including Audi and BMW focus on both high quality and price as the reputation they have is that its a long term investment. The Skoda Fabia is a low priced car because of the reputation it held from its unreliable past, but its reputation has slow been built back up. High Quality *BMW 1 Series Audi A4* *Skoda FabiaLow Price High Price Vauxhall* Corsa *Renault Clio Low Quality Relationships can be built up between the consumer and the seller. Mack (1996) states that Renault try and use this strategy as much as possible when selling cars. But why do this? They do this to make the consumer feel they are receiving a personalised service. Some dealerships offer free gift as an indirect way of making customers by their product too its competitors. Walker (1998) also says This has been a vital part of our strategy in helping to persuade customers that we can meet their needs especially targeting smaller cars. However it can be argued this strategy possibly may not work in modern society. As many people are aware the automotive industry is very competitive, it is becoming quickly cost orientated in particularly markets, indirect costs such as fuel, insurance and tax. Trade-off analysis could be applied to the Renault Clio. Jobber (2006) says Features such as speed, petrol consumption, brand and price are placed in front of consumers and asked which combinations they prefer. While the Clio Mk 3 was being designed it would have consulted potential buyers, they would have used rd for this because the car was designed to be low cost and wanted as many luxury as possible while concentrating on its core competence its price. However this analysis can have its limitations. When rd is taking place respondents may ask for a lot of things but all these additions may not be feasible. When asked to purchase the car consumers may not be willing to exchange money. Product Jobber (2006) defines product as A good service offered or performed by and organisation or individual, which is capable of satisfying customer needs. To have an effective product that consumers desire, it needs to be prices fairly and requires a Unique Selling Proposition. (USP) Walker et al (1998) states there are four elements which creates a well balanced and successful marketing mix. These included: Matching customer needs Need for balance Creates a competitive advantage Matches corporate resources The product Renault Clio has historically been targeted at the younger aged population who maybe on a budget. The product is a smaller model compared to other ranges in Renault yet also delivering the majority of luxury that other models offer. Including air-conditioning, climate control, Bluetooth and satellite navigation, this makes Clio very positive when it advertises the model to its consumers. The Clio then however meets the criteria set to have an effective marketing mix. Jobber (2006) states that Product development is important. As technology and tastes change, products become out of date and inferior to those of the competition, so companies must replace them with features that customers value. The fundamental feature of the new Clio model is the tom-tom feature. Renault and tom-tom have had to come to an agreement to include the satellite navigation to integrate this within the models. This has given Clio a competitive advantage over external competitors. Having a competitive advantage enables them to charge a premium price. However in few cases charging a premium price for products can have its down fall. Many consumers may not be willing to pay extra for products that may not be essential, consequently consumers will move to Clios competitors such as the 206 and Corsa. The balance is conducted by market research to see what consumers want, referring back to trade off analysis. According to Renault (2011) Clio is its most successful range of car across Europe. This is because the product caters for a broad range of markets. The reason for can be considered when looking at the anatomy of the Clio. The core product (I) would be the car itself and the way it is strategically priced, as being a low value priced car compared to its other cars within its range. The second layer would be products that add value to the overall product. Making it match customer needs and creating a competitive advantage. This could be as mentioned above, tom-tom, Bluetooth, keyless entry system, parking assist sensors and warranties. The outer layer includes extras which maybe indirectly related to the car including after sale support and credit sale. Many augmenting features are closely related to establishing a successful relationship between buyer and seller. ImageAnatomy of a product model A product life cycle (PLC) can determine where the product lies within its life. Many organisation use different strategies to pro-long the life of its product. When a product reaches maximum maturity and seess signs its declining it then considers using Product/Market Ansoff matrix. This involves 4 different strategies that can be used: Product development Diversification Market penetration Market development The reason for this is to maximise profits for Clio. Renault Clio mainly uses product development to change its model throughout years so customers have the opinion of upgrading and keeping up with trends rather than going to competitors. When the Clio was first launched it obviously begins in the introduction phase of the PLC and is strategically priced high. Jobber (2006) states that the Strategic marketing objective is to build sales by expanding the market for the product. The growth stage is next to follow, there is increase of sales and profit growth. The reason for this is due to increase in promotion by creating awareness. Renault Clio use TV advertising predominately to penetrate the market. They also have their own Renault TV channel. The maturity stage is where the product sales are at its peak whilst time is increasing. This is where the organisation may offer discounts or extra such as warranties. This is also the stage where product improvements occur at the peak of the maturity stage. The reasons for this include: Maintain competitive advantage Future growth First move advantage The decline stage is the final process of the PLC, the reason for this according to Walker (1998) is due to technological superior substitutes and also consumers change in preferences due to competition. The Renault Clio was an innovation that Renault developed due to competition from its competitors. According to Bloomberg Businessweek (2006) Renault was at number 49. Its competitors did not even reach the top 100 of innovated companies. Other automotive companies included within the list lower than number 49, Nissan and Volvo. This information could now be argued because companies such as Ford, Volkswagen and Toyota are much more innovated in 2010 as they have developed cars whilst considering external factors such as the environmental factors. (Development of the Hybrid car) Distribution Mix Marketing The distribution policy includes all decisions and actions that can be related to the delivery of our product to the customer. There are two different ways of distribution existing for Renaults company. Business to Business (B to B) = Company Retailer Consumer Business to Consumer (B to C) = Company Consumer Engineering Renault is one of the biggest car industries worldwide. It is present through the world in around 201 countries, including Europe, North, Central and South America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. An international engineering; closer to the markets. The Techno Center (France) Engineering: The Renault Group is deployed globally. It revolves around two components: Engineering Central, the heart of the system and regional engineering spread over Renaults strategic markets. Engineering centers: The Techno Center (France), the heart of the engineering world Renault Technologies Americas Renault Technologies Romania Renault Technologies Spain Renault Samsun Technical Center This organisation is based on a standardised process of engineering at Renault World of unified technical standards, defining key functions and technical harmonisation of policies. A well-developed network of design centers Renault Design America Latina in Sao Paulo The group relies on a parallel network of five satellites design centers. Observatories real trends these emerging centers of vehicles for new markets. They are involved from the launch of a new project through to the production of the final concept car. The design centers are: Renault Design Paris Renault Design Central Europe Renault Design America Latina Renault Samsung Design Renault Design India Two objectives are Warranty the best customer satisfaction all around the world Produce close to the markets Renaults industry realises two type of sell: Either to the customers or to companies. But, all confounded, Renault has realised for the Year 2010 reporting record sales volumes with 2.6 million vehicles sold. Thanks to its positioning, essentially outside Europe, in the emerging countries, Renault has bounded its sales. Heres a graph which represents the market where Renault is present in 2010: It is important to understand that the Clio is one of the best vehicles brand for Renault. In about 20 years, it has won more than 10 million customers around the world (100 countries). This success is thanks to a styling, comfort, safety, versatility and different equipment package worthy of cars from the next segment up. Renault February 2011 sales in Europe region In February 2011, by

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Should the United States Make English the Official language? Essay exam

According to the 2011 census, over 20.8 percent of the United States population spoke another language other than English ( Language barriers, cultural differences, and immigration have been a part of life in the United States for decades. Language is considered a vital tool in the construction of someone’s identity and an expression of culture. In the last 200 years immigrants have chosen to make the United States their home, but some proceeded with caution by slowly adapting to the English language and culture. If a country doesn’t have an official language is usually due to distinct historical or cultural reasons. As I began reading articles on this topic, I was amazed that the great country I live in doesn’t have an official language. I begin to wonder why this is the case. Many countries have an official language in which all the official business, daily activities and other formal activities are conducted. There are even thirty (30) states that have succeeded through their own statutes to declare English as an official language of their particular state ( It seems that this topic has been a heated debate for the past couple of decades, which has caused some division over the issue. I learned that there are a variety of pros and cons that you can argue about this issue. I chose to be a part of the pro English side for three reasons: I believe that making English our official language (1) would allow the education system to focus on English as the primary language, (2) it would unite our country in regards to racial discrimination, and (3) our government and business operations would be a little more streamlined. The United States is often called the melting pot because of th... ... immersed society through our businesses, education systems, and government sectors. I definitely support Congress in their attempts to continue fighting this battle to make English the national language. Works Cited Baron, Dennis. â€Å"Don’t Make English Official.† 1996. Web. 11 October 2014 Crawford, James. â€Å"A nation divided by one language.† 8 Mar 2001. Web. 11 October 2014 Inhofe, James M. and Cecilia Munoz. "Should English be declared America’s national language? A nation of immigrants considers the pros and cons of giving English official status." New York Times Upfront 23 Oct. 2006: 3. Bnet. Web. 6 Dec. 2014. â€Å"Habla Espanol? Does Spanish Threaten American English?† Web. 11 October 2014. â€Å"Official English.† US English, Inc. 2010. Web. 6 December 2014. â€Å"US Summary.† 2000. Web. 6 December 2014

Friday, July 19, 2019

Influence of Realism on Literature :: Literature Realism

Influence of Realism on Literature After World War I, American people and the authors among them were left disillusioned by the effects that war had on their society. America needed a literature that would explain what had happened and what was happening to their society. American writers turned to what is now known as modernism. The influence of 19th Century realism and naturalism and their truthful representation of American life and people was evident in post World War I modernism. This paper will try to prove this by presenting the basic ideas and of these literary genres, literary examples of each, and then make connections between the two literary movements. Realism Modernism not only depicted American society after World War I accurately and unbiasedly, but also tried to find the solutions brought upon by the suffering created by the war (Elliott 705). The realistic movement of the late 19th century saw authors accurately depict life and it’s problems. Realists attempted to â€Å"give a comprehensive picture of modern life† (Elliott 502) by presenting the entire picture. They did not try to give one view of life but instead attempted to show the different classes, manners, and stratification of life in America. Realists created this picture of America by combining a wide variety of â€Å"details derived from observation and documentation...† to â€Å"approach the norm of experience...† (3). Along with this technique, realists compared the â€Å"objective or absolute existence† in America to that of the â€Å"universal truths, or observed facts of life† (Harvey 12). In other words, realists objectively looked at American society and pointed out the aspects that it had in common with the general truths of existence. This realistic movement evolved as a result of many changes and transitions in American culture. In the late 1800’s, the United States was experiencing â€Å"swift growth and change† as a result of a changing economy, society, and culture because of an influx in the number of immigrants into America. Realists such as Henry James and William Dean Howells, two of the most prolific writers of the Nineteenth-century, used typical realistic methods to create an accurate depiction of changing American life.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Th Future of Hip Hop Essay -- Hip Hop Music, Total Chaos

From its conception in the 1970's and throughout the 1980's, hip hop was a self-contained entity within the community that created it. This means that all the parameters set for the expression came from within the community and that it was meant for consumption by the community. Today, the audience is from outside of the community and doesn’t share the same experiences that drive the music. An artists’ success hinges on pleasing consumers, not the community. In today's world, it isn’t about music that rings true for those who share the artists' experiences, but instead, music that provides a dramatic illusion for those who will never share the experiences conveyed. This has radically changed the creative process of artists and the diversity of available music. Most notably, it has called in to question the future of hip hop. In Total Chaos, Jeff Chang references Harry Allen, a hip hop critic and self-proclaimed hip hop activist. Harry Allen compares the hip hop movement to the Big Bang and poses this complex question: â€Å"whether hip-hop is, in fact a closed universe-bound to recollapse, ultimately, in a fireball akin to its birth-or an open one, destined to expand forever, until it is cold, dark, and dead† (9). An often heard phase, â€Å"hip hop is dead,† refers to the high occurrence of gangster rap in mainstream hip hop. Today’s hip hop regularly features black youths posturing as rich thugs and indulging in expensive merchandise. The â€Å"hip hop is dead† perspective is based on the belief that hip hop was destined to become the model of youth resistance and social change. However, its political ambitions have yet to emerge, thus giving rise to hip hops’ criticisms. This essay will examine the past and present of hip hop in o... ... in which the expansion never ends, but all vitality is lost. The past shows us that hip hop has transformed and evolved; it doesn’t have to end and it doesn’t have to lose its momentum. Works Cited Chang, Jeff. Total Chaos: The Art and Aesthetics of Hip-hop. New York: BasicCivitas, 2006. Print. Farley, Christopher J. "Rapper Nas Says Maybe Hip Hop Isn't Dead After All." Wall Street Journal, 20 May 2010. Web. Merwin, Scott. "From Kool Herc to 50 Cent, the Story of Rap -- so Far." Pittsburgh Post- Gazette, 15 Feb. 2004. Web. Nas. 2006. â€Å"Hip Hop is Dead.† Hip Hop is Dead. Def Jam Recordings. Nas. 2006. â€Å"Hope.† Hip Hop is Dead. Def Jam Recordings. Rose, Tricia. The Hip Hop Wars: What We Talk about When We Talk about Hip Hop - and Why It Matters. New York: BasicCivitas, 2008. Print. Williams, Saul. 2004. â€Å"Telegram.† Saul Williams. Fader Record Label.

Baroque vs. Modern Pop

MUSI200 27 January 2013 Baroque Vs. Modern Pop The Western music known today has its roots in the musical practices found in Europe and the Middle East over twenty centuries ago. These musical practices, in turn, have their roots in ancient Greek and Roman practices which are detailed in musical and philosophical treatises of the time. Greek civilization, with its political structures, its architectural and musical attainments, and its great achievements in philosophy and poetry, has influenced European culture and in turn American culture (Hansen, 2012).I have taken two excerpts of music, Marin Marais (1656-1728) – Pieces a Une Viole du Premier Livre (1686) and a Pop group name R. E. M and there last concert at the BBC. I have chosen R. E. M because their music is based off of the Baroque era with a modern day flare. After listen to both pieces, I was touched by the Baroque era music. I enjoyed both concerts, but I think I enjoyed the Pop concert more than the Baroque concert . The Pop concert of course had more rhythm and the difference in instruments made a difference to me.The drums where the biggest difference, had my foot tapping and my head bobbing, and the Baroque concert had me in a state of relaxation and peace of mind. The music differs from one another through the type of instruments used. The Baroque music used piano and chello unlike the modern day music using acoustic instruments and percussions. They even used electric guitars. I think the biggest difference was the singing; I stated previously that the drums were the biggest difference but the singing was definitely the biggest difference.The Baroque had no singing in the entire concert. The music was similar in the instruments told a story even though the Baroque music did not have words it still told a story, you could almost imagine or maybe even visualize the story being told and at your own words to the music. The Pop music of course had words but even then if you remove the words fr om the music it had the same effect as the Baroque music. The roles of concerts in the Baroque era I think played a role in society that we lack today.Back then in those times people went to concerts to escape the everyday life and learn something new, it was like a story being told or news being passed. Musicians were highly revered not role models like the musicians of today. Pop concerts today we attend as a form of entertainment, we go to see our favorite band or singer. We don’t attend for the appreciation of music like they did in the Baroque days. Today we have a different kind of appreciation of music, it’s whoever is hot at the time, whatever song is the big hit at the moment.There are certain types of people that attend these types of concerts. The Baroque attendees, I would say a more intellectual type a person that loves the art of music, a person that really appreciate music. The Pop attendees, I would say are more care free and just want to have fun and n ot have to worry about anything but, having fun, a person that just wants to feel good and carefree for a moment. Our experiences with music are influenced by many factors. The biggest factor is the internet. We have access to things that we didn’t have back in the days before the internet.We can easily move music around and get the sound out to the masses. In the Baroque era it may have taken a year for one composer to get his music heard by the masses. In conclusion, the Baroque era and the Pop era are so different but yet so similar, I guess it would come down to ones own opinion of each type of music. I would think that any music lover would appreciate both eras of music. Works Cited Bethanie Hansen, Cathy Silverman, and David Whitehouse, Music Appreciation, 2012. Website (http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=poCRFiaoCLA) Website (http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=uaYVa1r0nlA)

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Jolly Java Essay

Jollys drinking chocolate bean tree and Bakery Jollys java and Bakery For the SWOT analysis, I chose pass judgment the business plan for Jollys Java and Bakery. JJB is a bakehouse and coffee shop managed by two partners, capital of Texas Patterson and David Fields. The company offers a broad station of coffee and espresso products at competitive prices, completely from high quality Columbian freehanded imported coffee beans. In addition, the bakery will provide freshly prepared bakery and pastry products at each times during business operations. Catering to exclusively of its customers by providing each customer coffee and espresso products made to suit the customer is a top priority.During the SWOT analysis, I ascertained the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the company. The background finger of the owners strengthens many areas in the business plan. Austin Patterson has extensive experience in sales, merchandising, and management, and was vice pres ident of marketing with both Jansonne & Jansonne and Burper Foods. David Fields brings experience in the area of finance and administration, including a least sandpiper as chief financial officeholder with both Flaxfield Roasters and the national coffee transshipment center chain, BuzzCups. With this experience, the owners could address a well vox populi out start-up plan.The problem with hiring a legal age of part- time consummationers is stability. Most responsible and trustworthy people are not qualified to balance their daily expenses with only a part-time job. They would require a gage job which can affect the work environment. The retail coffee industry in the United States has experienced recently speedy growth. The cool marine climate in southwest Washington stimulates consumption of scorching beverages throughout the year. With minimal levels of competition in the immediate area, JJB is presented with the opportunity to take everyplace the industry.